# Aptitude Chapter-10

Bodhak competitive bank exams percentages in this tutorial we are going to learn the below Topics :

Races and Games, Percentages, Profit and Loss, Permutations and Combinations

Races and Games:

If two or more persons running in a competition then it is called the race.  In races and games you have to remember some points:

1)In a race of 100 meters, A gives a start of 20 meters to B. That means A is at the starting point and B is at 20meters.

2) In a race of 100 meters A beats B by 20 meters that mean A reached the 100m and

B at 80 meters. In a 100 meters race, A covers the distance in 36 seconds and B covers the distance in 45 seconds. In this race A beats B by?

1. a) 25 meters b) 20 meters  c) 30 meters  d) 80 meters

Solution: race is 100 meters

A = 100 meters = 36 seconds

B = 100 meters = 45 seconds

In 36 Seconds A reaches to 100 meters and In 36 seconds B  reaches to?

B = 45 = 100, 36=?

(36*100)/45=80

So A = 36 = 100,   B = 36 = 80

A Beats B By 20 meters.

#### competitive bank exams percentages :

Percentage means per 100

In percentages, everything considered as 100.

Percentage concept is used to compare persons on a single platform.

Note: In percentages unknown things considered as 100.

### Profit and Loss:

We can find calculate the Profit and Loss using the following:

Profit percentage or loss percentage is calculated only on cost price.

Discount is allowed only on marked price.

Marked price means the extra price on an item than cost price.

In profit and loss, we can do problems by using one shortcut that always takes cost price (C.P) = 100.

If you want profit then add.

If you want loss then subtract.

S.P  referred to Selling  Price

C.P  referred to Cost price

Profit  =  S.P  –  C.P  (S.P > C.P)

Loss  =  C.P  –  S.P  (C.P > S.P)

#### Permutations and Combinations:

Permutation means arrangements and we denote it by P.

Combinations mean selections and we denote it by C.

Permutations are  NPR that means we can arrange N observations in R ways.

Combinations are  NCR  that means from observations R observations are selected.